Appointment of a Legal Guardian
If an individual lacks the mental capacity necessary to make rational choices, there are two ways recognized by the law for proving a substitute decision maker: (1) the individual, while he was still competent, designated someone to be their agent, also known as an attorney-in-fact, by signing a power of attorney, or (2) the state, acting through the courts, may appoint a substitute decision maker known as a guardian (also sometimes called a “conservator”), for the incapacitated individual.
Power of Attorney
A "power of attorney" is a document which is signed by an individual (the "principal") appointing another person or persons (called the "attorney-in-fact" or "agent") to act for and on behalf of the principal. If the power of attorney authorizes the agent to act for the principal in almost all circumstances, it is called a "general" power of attorney. If the power of attorney is effective even if the principal is disabled or incompetent, it is called a "durable" power of attorney.
A person executing a durable general power of attorney naming a husband, wife, child, or other family member as attorney-in-fact authorizes that family member to manage his or her financial and personal affairs even after incapacity, avoiding the need for any guardianship.
Spouse Has No Legal Authority
Just because you are married does not give you legal authority over the property and person of your spouse. It is absolutely essential that you give your spouse, or some other person you trust, power of attorney. If your spouse becomes incapacitated and you don’t hold his or her power of attorney, you cannot sell the home you own jointly, cannot make withdrawals from your spouse’s IRA or other retirement plan, and cannot act for your spouse in any other legal capacity. If you don’t have a power of attorney, the only other alternative is a court appointed guardian.
The court procedure is termed a “guardianship” in Pennsylvania, In some other states, the procedure is referred to as a “conservatorship.” The individual for whom a guardian has been appointed is called a “ward.” Sometimes the ward is referred to as an “incapacitated person,” which has replaced the old-fashioned and offensive nomenclature of an “incompetent person.”